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I also attended the Nacro Youth Justice Conference and spoke with social workers, police, teachers and health professionals who helped to shed light on the psychology behind gang-related behaviour. And slowly but surely a structure began to emerge. It seemed that all-female gangs often evolved as offshoots from mixed-gender gangs.

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Girls were choosing to set up on their own to avoid the misogyny, violence and lower social status afforded them in mixed-gender gangs. And these hierarchies would be daily reinforced by threats and violence against girls at the bottom of the chain from girls higher up. So it seemed impossible to write a play without both male and female characters in order to explore this mirroring of behaviour.

Clean Break has a policy of working with only women and so all characters in the play, whether male or female, are played by women. But I soon realised that this would work in favour of the drama. Boys could morph into girls before our eyes: However as we continue to watch, unintentionally, they would begin to mimic the boys they were fleeing from, and this time instead of knives they would wield guns.

For instance, such scholarship has served to uncover the dramatic texts of the tenth-century Hrotsvit von Gandersheim; plays by Restoration women playwrights such as Aphra Behn, Mary Pix and Susanna Centlivre; and dramas by Edwardian women concerned with suffrage and the Woman Question — Elizabeth Baker, Cicely Hamilton, Elizabeth Robins, and Githa Sowerby.

Women came together in consciousness-raising groups to share their personal discontents and political dissatisfactions. As a profession, theatre was a microcosm of the discrimination and inequalities operating in society at large.

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The lived, professional experience of being consigned to the role of understudy is what, in turn, encouraged women practitioners to found their own feminist-theatre groups. Both organisationally and creatively they operated democratically and collaboratively, rather than hierarchically and individualistically. Ensemble-based acting and presentational Brechtian-inflected styles were widely adopted. Feminist theatre and performance that emerged from the Second Wave largely came to be defined, understood and analyzed in relation to three types of feminism: Each feminist dynamic also had its aesthetic counterpart: Resistant voices in the nineties, such as Rebecca Prichard and Judy Upton, picked up the complex feminist baton by dramatizing disenchanted and disadvantaged communities of young women.

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In sum, feminist futures and the future of feminist theatre appear far less certain than in the defining moment of seventies activism and political theatre making. As Freestone puts it, "This is about asking: Do you ask the question? If you have 10 writers under commission do you think about it if they are all men? If you never think to ask, that's when you are in trouble. Programming, commissioning and casting decisions are routinely made without any consideration of gender.

Why is this 2: Like so much else in English theatre, it goes back to Shakespeare. He was, of course, writing for all-male companies; and, though he wrote transcendent parts for women, there aren't very many. Of his characters, are male and female: Women have less to say, too: The most wordy of Shakespeare's heroines, Rosalind, has lines. Hamlet, his most loquacious hero, has 1, This means less work for women actors, and fewer opportunities for them to develop their skills via the many workaday parts available to men.

The Shakespeare problem has persisted because, until relatively recently, much of British theatre relied on the repertory system: Shakespeare would frequently sit at the heart of such a company; many new plays would therefore tend to be written for a similar gender balance. There is something deeply culturally engrained about this: I'm not saying there's been institutional sexism, but there has been a sort of blindness to female actors because of the burden of the classical canon. The answer to this is, surely, gender-blind casting, especially in the classics, where colour-blind casting has ceased to be a matter for comment.

Phyllida Lloyd, whose current all-female Julius Caesar at the Donmar has provided a focus for recent debate, is clear: When I speak to Doran, he tells me he has invited Lloyd to run a company of actors at the RSC on precisely those lines. Hytner believes he cannot impose strictures, that directors' casting decisions have to be based on their own instincts: But I can't tell writers how they should write and directors how they should cast. For many, this is not enough. Duffy argues that fringe theatre is better balanced, and that the national companies should be leading by example — "and they are not, and I find it heartbreaking".

Order by newest oldest recommendations. Show 25 25 50 All. Bousfield , chapter 4. Like Frederick and John, Philip and Doll briefly discuss Mayberry as if she was not there, despite the fact that she can clearly hear their conversation. The offence caused is still available, but is indirect in nature.

Previous examples illustrate how an impolite utterance can be used towards an addressee whereas less impolite as off-record strategies are used for the referee over an addressee.

Bibliograhies consulted

And this is yet another example of male characters defining female characters through a framework of social structure and implicit power. Individual authors with more than one example of the phrase in question, such as Fletcher and Dekker, use both of these strategies, though the explicit face-threatening act is only slightly more common in non-Shakespearean drama.

Furthermore, the use of this phrase in non-Shakespearean drama shows a distinct social imbalance, in which male characters uphold social norms. There are a number of highly visible mad women characters in Early Modern drama, but as this study has shown this phrase is rarely used to describe them outright. Finally, the overall infrequency of this phrase in Early Modern drama despite the highly-visible characters suggests there are further sociopragmatic implications accounting for its limited and highly-coded use, such as using other phrases which code for misbehaving women.

Relatedly, Biber and Burges The expanded Shakespeare His Contemporaries corpus Mueller is available from http: This would increase the frequency of usage for Dekker from two to four, making him second only to Fletcher in his use of the phrase in question. Speeches Lines for Apemantus in Timon of Athens: Speeches Lines for Bassanio in Merchant of Venice: Speeches Lines for Portia in Merchant of Venice: The honest whore with, the humours of the patient man, and the longing wife on the University of Oxford Text Archive from example 4 above: Scene 6, A http: The Wild-goose chase 4.

Gender and Class in Early Modern England. Questions and Answers in the English Courtroom — Corpus Linguistics by the Lune: A Festschrift for Geoffrey Leech , ed. Journal of English Linguistics 28 Some Universals in Language Usage. The Anatomy Of Melancholy. Vocative Constructions in the Language of Shakespeare. Journal of Pragmatics 25 3: People in plays and other texts. Journal of Politeness Research 1 1: Journal of Historical Pragmatics 10 2: Journal of Pragmatics 42 Culpeper, Jonathan, Boufield, D. Journal of Pragmatics 35 10— Early Modern English Dialogues: Spoken Interaction as Writing.

Culpeper, Jonathan, and Jane Demmen. Journal of Historical Pragmatics 12 1—2: Gender Shifts in the History of English. Database of Early English Playbooks.

Theater's Audiences Are Mostly Female: Why Not the Roles?

Farmer and Zachary Lesser. The honest whore with, the humours of the patient man, and the longing vvife. Demmen, Jane Elizabeth Judson. Shakespeare and the Nature of Women. Oxfordshire and Ann Arbor, Michigan, The Night-vvalker, or the Little Theife. The Wild Goose Chase. As it was acted at the Theater Royal. This tune goes manly: MRes dissertation, University of Strathclyde.

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Syntax and semantics, Speech acts, Vol. Peter Cole, Jerry Morgan, 41— Annals of English Drama, — , 3rd edition.

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Journal of Historical Pragmatics 12 Women in the Age of Shakespeare. Adam Mickiewicz University Press. Pragmatics and Beyond , — Shakespeare and the Embodied Heroine: Literary Uses of Linguistic Gender. Journal of Politeness Research. Language, Behaviour, Culture 1 1: Discourse Markers in Early Modern English.

Women in Early Modern England, — An Introduction to Early Modern English. Hermes Journal of Linguistics